Diabetes mellitus is the cause of many complications associated with almost all systems of the human body. Diabetes generally weakens the immune system, which is why people suffering from sudden drops in sugar are more likely to get sick. In this case, one of the unprotected organs of a person becomes his eyes. Vision will begin to deteriorate due to changes in sugar, and the protective function of the body will not have the desired effect.
Causes of Eye Disease
High blood sugar is often the cause of blindness in people aged 15 to 80 years. The main causes of eye damage in diabetes mellitus:
- Changes in the lining of the eye. Not infrequently, the problem is invisible, so this phenomenon is dangerous for the body. Only the attending physician can identify.
- Eye damage in diabetes leads to inflammation of this area and the development of "barley" on the eyelids.
- Cataracts are a clouding of the pupil that provokes visual impairment and blindness.
- Eye neuropathy - disrupts the functioning of nerves in the orbits as a result of a motionless eye.
- Glaucoma is an increase in pressure in the eyes.
- Diabetic retinopathy is a disease in which vision deteriorates and spots appear in front of the eyes.
Changes in the shell of the eye can occur imperceptibly. However, it is they that lead to complications or the development of serious pathologies.
Inflammation of the eyes is the main problem faced by a patient with diabetes. Damage to the eyes in diabetes or inflammation can be different: from purulent barley to inflammation of the edge of the eyelids, which leads to swimming of the eyelid and accumulation of pus on the shell of the eye. In both cases, you should immediately contact your doctor to prescribe treatment and drops. If you start treatment, then there will be an infection of the eyes, and subsequently blood in the body.
Cataracts are a clouding of the eye lens. It develops with diabetes, both in the elderly and young. The disease spreads from the edges of the pupil and, if inactive, the affected area will increase over the entire eye. At the initial stage, black stripes will appear that appear before the eyes.
One of the serious eye lesions in diabetes extends to the nervous system. Such a disease is called eye neuropathy. With neuropathy, the mobility of the eye is impaired or difficulty in the mobility of the eyelid develops, which leads to permanent closure of the eye. The doctor prescribes a two or three-month diet, in which kitchen salt and protein are completely excluded from the diet. With the disease, it is recommended to abandon bad habits: smoking and drinking alcohol. If you neglect the advice of a doctor, you will need to undergo a second course of treatment or there will be irreversible visual impairment.
With glaucoma, there may not be symptoms until the final and most severe stage occurs abruptly. In rare cases, the symptomatology manifests itself in the form of frequent headaches or drying out of the lens of the eye, which leads to uncomfortable sensations. Treatment should be started immediately, as the disease is detected in the early stages. It is almost impossible to restore vision at an advanced stage of the disease. The attending physician can prescribe a number of drops and vitamins, as well as a special diet.
Diabetic retinopathy is a disease associated with the vascular system. Retinopathy is one of the serious diseases of the retina. It develops most often in people who have been afraid of diabetes for more than a year. If the disease was not detected in the early stages, and the patient was inactive, then there is a high probability of loss of vision. In medicine, several types of such lesions have been identified, they include:
- Unprofiled - a type in which there is damage to blood vessels, but nothing prevents vision. However, you should monitor your blood sugar and follow the doctor’s instructions. It easily progresses to a more serious stage.
- Preproliferative - a type in which critical hemorrhage occurs. Occurs during increased pressure in the vessels. May appear before the eyes with a large accumulation of black dots. From this, vision is significantly impaired.
- Proliferative - in this case, with a sharp jump in pressure, the vessels burst. Blood directly enters the pupil, where a blood membrane forms that interferes with vision. Often leads to glaucoma.
With rheniopathy, you should listen to your doctor impeccably. When treating such an ailment, animal fats are completely excluded from the diet. In most cases, they are replaced with plant foods.
Causes of visual impairment in diabetes
The main cause of vision damage is high blood glucose. The pathological condition causes:
- Edema of the lens.
- Destruction of the blood vessels of the eyeball.
If the patient does not control sugar intake and does not follow a strict diet, the risk of developing ophthalmic diseases and other complications of diabetes increases significantly. Visual impairment is actively progressing in patients with obesity and anemia.
First signs and symptoms
If the first signs of eye diseases are detected, patients should consult an optometrist. Failure to take medical measures leads to a significant decrease in the quality of vision. Among the alarming signs by which you can suspect ophthalmic disorders:
- Decrease in contrast of sight. A person with a disability sees objects better in the evening, when the lighting is not as intense as during the day. When the maximum level of solar activity (lunch and afternoon) is noted, patients note double vision and low definition of objects.
- Rainbow circles and flies before the eyes. Violations of the visual system indicate any extraneous elements in the field of view.
- Narrowing the boundaries of vision.
- Difficulties when working with small objects, such as needles.
- Merging, blurring letters. The need to focus and squint to make out small inscriptions.
- Difficulty reading store signs and street names.
- Dull and obscure objects.
If the patient does not ignore the first alarming signs of visual impairment and consults a doctor in a timely manner, he has a chance to prevent or slow down further pathological processes. In some cases, when correcting the diet, patients can restore vision in 3-4 months.
Diabetic retinopathy and types
Ophthalmic disease affects the small blood vessels of the eye. Degenerations are arterioles, veins, capillaries. This is a common complication of diabetes, which can lead to complete blindness of the patient. The disease is diagnosed in 90% of patients with hyperglycemia.
The main cause of visual disturbances is a violation of microcirculation. Undesirable substances enter the retina, and shunts, microaneurysms, and hemorrhages form. Patients complain of pain and decreased visual acuity,
According to the WHO classification, diabetic retinopathy is divided into the following types:
- Retinopathy I, non-proliferative. Microaneurysms and hemorrhages are found in the lining of the eye. You can identify them by small rounded points or spots. Retinal edema is noted.
- Retinopathy II, preproliferative. An optometrist detects venous abnormalities, including loops, tortuosity, caliber fluctuations and doubling. Dense discharge and signs of hemorrhage appear.
- Retinopathy III, proliferative. The optic nerve and retina suffer. After hemorrhage, fibrous tissue forms, leading to retinal detachment. Glaucoma is often observed.
Cataract is a disease that causes clouding of the lens of the eye and visual impairment. It causes complete blindness. The disease is widespread among people of the older age group (50-80 years).
In the initial stages of cataract development, the patient does not notice a decrease in visual acuity. During progression, pathology causes myopia. Patients indicate a decrease in clarity, double vision, the appearance of a grayish or yellowish background. There are complaints of increased sensitivity to sunlight. At the same time, there is an improvement in visual abilities in cloudy weather.
Glaucoma is an ophthalmic disease with a periodic increase in intraocular pressure. The disorder causes visual field defects and optic atrophy. Glaucoma occurs in open-angle and closed-angle form.
In the absence of adequate treatment, a progressive disease leads to complete loss of vision. The cause of blindness can be an acute attack with a sharp increase in intraocular pressure.
Therapeutic techniques show a high level of effectiveness if the disease is in the initial stages of development. Doctors use antioxidants and medications to reduce blood vessel permeability and normalize metabolic processes. Patients use intraocular drops.
Advanced physiotherapy techniques are used. Infrasound, color therapy, phonophoresis, pneumomassage have a certain beneficial effect.
It is worth noting that any therapeutic method of treatment cannot prevent the relapse of visual pathologies. With age, the state of vision in patients with diabetes gradually worsens. However, a proper diet and strict adherence to the recommendations of the attending physician can slow down pathological changes, avoiding the risk of complete blindness.
In order to maintain visual acuity after diabetes and prevent the development of dangerous ophthalmic pathologies, patients need to:
- Take measures to prevent viral infections.
- Eat the right diet. It is important to consume enough foods rich in vitamins A, C, E, omega-3, carotene and zinc.
- Prevent the development of complications by constantly monitoring the concentration of sugar in the blood.
- Have adequate physical activity. Daily walks and periodic aerobic exercises have a beneficial effect on the condition of the body with diabetes.
- Periodically visit your doctor to monitor the condition, make visits to the ophthalmologist at the first sign of visual impairment.
- Protect your eyes from ultraviolet rays using wide-brimmed hats and glasses.
- Reduce your time at the computer.
- Stop smoking because nicotine causes damage to the lens.
- Monitor your blood pressure.
- Monitor blood cholesterol.