Purulent - inflammatory skin lesions: concept, causes, classification
Frequent skin lesions of infectious and non-infectious genesis are associated with its anatomical and physiological characteristics:
1. good blood supply due to the developed capillary network,
2. blood vessels wide, permeable
3. the stratum corneum is thin, consists of 2 to 3 layers of weakly interconnected cells that are constantly rejected
4. in the dermis, the connective base and muscle fibers are poorly developed
5. the basement membrane located between the epidermis and the dermis is represented by loose fiber and does not provide a strong bond between the main layers of the skin, which leads to mild epidermis rejection and exposure of the dermis
6. the main (germ layer) is well developed, this is associated with a high ability of the child’s skin to recover (regenerate)
7. sweat glands in the child are formed, but their ducts are poorly developed, sweating begins from 3 to 4 months of age due to the immaturity of the centers of the brain. Consequently, the thermoregulatory function of the skin is also imperfect.
8. subcutaneous tissue in full-term infants is well developed, with a rich network of blood vessels, therefore, when exposed to toxins, the permeability of the vascular wall increases and plasma (the liquid part of the blood) enters the surrounding tissue and edema develops
9. due to the morphological immaturity of the skin, its protective function is insufficient
2. Non-infectious skin diseases.
DIAGNOSIS - this is the most common skin lesion.
Their occurrence is associated with defects in care: rare swaddling, irregular hygienic baths and washing, reuse of diapers. In children with exudative - catarrhal diathesis, with a tendency to allergic reactions or when infected with fungal flora, a tendency to rapidly occurring and persistent diaper rash is observed.
Diaper rash is often located in the buttocks, genitals, skin folds, lower abdomen - in places where the skin is irritated by urine, feces or rubbing with rough diapers.
The severity and prevalence of the process distinguish 3 degrees of diaper rash:
I degree - moderate hyperemia of the skin without violating its integrity
II degree - bright hyperemia with erosion
III degree - bright redness and get wet as a result of merged erosion.
Diaper rash with a violation of the integrity of the skin can quickly become infected.
During diaper rash, the child becomes restless, sleeps poorly, is naughty, since feces, urine, wet diapers, in contact with the skin, cause pain, burning.
Careful skin care for the baby.
Showing local and general baths with a pale pink potassium permanganate solution
1:10 000, decoctions of chamomile, oak bark, string, 1% solution of tannin.
With diaper rash of the first degree, the skin is treated with sterile vegetable oil,
Vitamin A oil solution, baby cream, disinfectants and
Vaseline oil, which irritates the skin, should not be used.
It is not allowed to use powders and oils on the same skin areas at the same time.
During swaddling, air baths are carried out. Free swaddling without the use of oilcloth is recommended.
At II - III degrees lotions with 0.5% are applied to wet skin surfaces
resorcinol solution, 1.25% silver nitrate solution or talkers.
Apply UFO (quartz), which has a bactericidal and drying
POTNITIA - occurs as a result of overheating and inadequate skin care. It appears due to sweat retention in the excretory ducts of the sweat glands. A lot of small vesicles appear on the skin of the child, filled with transparent serous contents or small-dotted red elements with a diameter of 1-2 mm, which appear as a result of the expansion of blood vessels around the mouth of the sweat glands and, as it were, appear through the skin. The skin around the elements is not changed.
A rash is localized on the skin of the neck, upper chest, lower abdomen, natural folds (inguinal, axillary). The general condition of the child is not broken, the body temperature is normal.
Treatment consists in eliminating the defects of care, the obligatory daily conduct of hygienic baths with a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate. Locally, the skin is treated with baby powder.
Skin with sweating and diaper rash can be the entrance gate to infection and lead to the development of purulent - inflammatory diseases of the newborn.
3. Purulent - inflammatory diseases of the newborn
Purulently - inflammatory diseases of the newborn - one of the most relevant
Most often, the development of purulent - inflammatory diseases of newborns
expected in children with a second risk group (risk of intrauterine infection and
development of purulent - inflammatory and purulent - septic diseases).
Risk factors include:
1. miscarriages, stillbirths, history of infertility in the mother
2. chronic extragenital pathology of the mother: bronchitis, pneumonia, tonsillitis, cholecystitis, colitis, pyelonephritis, etc.
3. SARS, bacterial infections in the last trimester of pregnancy and childbirth
4. premature placental abruption
5. premature discharge of amniotic fluid
6. long waterless period (6 hours or more)
7. community-acquired birth
8. instrumental interventions during childbirth
9. mastitis, endometritis in the mother in the first week after childbirth
2. at the time of birth
1. sick (medical staff, mothers, children)
2. healthy bacteria carriers
3. care items, medical equipment, instruments
Ways of spread of infection:
Conditions for the development of purulent - inflammatory diseases:
1. reduced immunological reactivity of the child (lack of body resistance)
2. presence of an entrance gate
3. massive infection
4. virulent properties of microbes
Factors that reduce the body's resistance:
2. birth injuries
3. improper feeding and maintenance of the child
4. poor sanitary and hygienic conditions for keeping the child
2. mucous membranes
3. umbilical wound
Pathogens and diseases can be various microorganisms. Until the last
of time, most often it was Staphylococcus aureus, but now it is of great importance
attached to conditionally pathogenic intestinal flora (E. coli, Proteus,
Klebsiella, Enterobacter, etc.), as well as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, streptococcus group
B, epidermal staphylococcus.
The incubation period ranges from 2 to 3 days to 2 to 3 months.
During the first days of life, infection occurs in 72 - 75% of cases
If the child falls ill before 2 - 3 months of age, then most likely he will be infected
received at the maternity hospital.
For the correct diagnosis and determination of the time of infection
need to have a good history:
1. find out what the mother was sick with, under what conditions the pregnancy was
2. how was the birth (normal in duration or prolonged)
3. how was the primary treatment of the newborn - on the changing table or on the mother’s stomach
4. were there any cases of purulent-inflammatory diseases in the maternity hospital (for each case of a purulent-inflammatory disease, information is sent to the hospital where the child was discharged from)
5. What day is the child discharged (earlier discharge is practiced now)
6. find out when the umbilical cord has fallen
7. Does mom have enough milk for her baby?
8. in what conditions does the child live, what is his care
Purulent - inflammatory diseases include localized purulent
infection and sepsis.
Localized purulent infection is an inflammatory process, limited
the limits of one organ.
Localized infections include:
1. skin diseases (pyoderma)
2. subcutaneous tissue,
3. mucous membranes (conjunctivitis, etc.),
4. glandular lesions (mastitis),
5. navel diseases (omphalitis).
Did not find what you were looking for? Use the search:
Best sayings:But what kind of mathematics are you if you cannot normally password-protect yourself. 8397 - | 7318 - or read all.
184.108.40.206 © studopedia.ru I am not the author of the materials that are posted. But provides the opportunity for free use. Is there a copyright violation? Write to us | Feedback.
and refresh the page (F5)
It is not rare that a problem with rashes cannot be solved for years, cosmetologists treat people, they do peelings, but all to no avail. Most often in such cases, it turns out that staphylococcus has settled in the body, and in order to get rid of it, it is necessary to use antibiotics and gamma globulins.
The worms that live in the human body are by no means vegetarians. They do not like to eat fruits and vegetables, and if they do not like the environment where they live, they leave it. And if a person constantly eats sugar, then the parasites living in it require it.
A large number of experiments were conducted when jars of sweets were placed in labyrinths and closed corridors. The cat, in whose body the bull tapeworm lived, on the first attempt found the right jar. Even the cat also unmistakably found other products that like the bull tapeworm.
It is absolutely precisely established that if parasites have settled in the human body, it is they who control his taste preferences. If the child has pinworms in the body, then he will really like everything sweet, which is excellent food for worms. After getting rid of them, the child begins to eat half the sugar.
The skin is the intercellular space, cells that are in a free mode of swimming, and blood vessels that penetrate the intercellular space. The lymphatic system works in the opposite direction. It is a duct that collects intercellular fluid for purification.
For example, you cut yourself and caught bacteria. White blood cells are in the blood, but they do not live in the space between the cells. They begin to exit through the walls of blood vessels and destroy the focus of bacterial inflammation. As a result, pus appears.
Skin and Disease
The issue of abscess removal can be solved in two ways. When lymphocytes have absorbed bacteria, they enter the bloodstream or lymph. If the abscess is quite large in size, then everything gets into the lymph.
Now pus needs to somehow get out of the body. A person develops a runny nose that there is nothing but ridding the body of purulent lymph. The lymph node has 10 inputs and one output, it is divided into sectors, in each of which there is a splitting of bacteria.
After that there is an exit to the top. In the next section, the lymph node of the second, third order, etc. The wider the area of the fence, the wider and larger the lymph node.
For example, consider the situation that cutaneous staphylococcus appeared in the body, which is quite difficult to destroy. The infection penetrated the lymph node, he begins to actively fight it, but can not cope.
What happens in this case? The outflow of blood slows down sharply, and the nervous system has to remove pus through the skin. The body will begin to prepare, create a "path" through which the mass of leukocytes with dead bacteria will go out. A white tubercle appears if the body has white staphylococcus and greenish if staphylococcus aureus. A pimple was born.
If we start to push, we spread the infection throughout the cell space. If a second-order node is clogged, then what will happen to an acne? He will grow. If the nodes are clogged further, then it will become even larger.
Fungus in the body
Let’s now consider the situation with the fungus. If a fungus has settled in your body, then the white blood cells will not even think of driving it through the lymphatic system simply because the fungus goes in a close order and is connected to the mycelium, so if you pull it into the lymph node, it will immediately clog, and if it gets into the second lymph node then the entire lymphatic system may clog.
Our body follows one law: a fungal infection is always excreted through the skin. Therefore, everything that appears on the skin, whether it is peeling, cracks, itching in any places, is of fungal origin.
The lymphatic system can suffocate and die from a fungus. Pay attention to where the child has diathesis. As a rule, it appears in the area of the lymph nodes, on the wrists, on the bends, tummy, palms, buttocks. Lymph is affected precisely in the area of large lymph nodes.
Therefore, diathesis is not a disease, it is a fungal infection mixed with dysbiosis against a background of impaired immunity. With diathesis, a child’s body always has a fungus. But people are used to calling it allergies, which is the body’s incorrect response to a foreign protein. However, it is not a fact that such a protein in the case of a real allergy will go through the skin. And the fungus goes through the skin in all cases.
Children with intestinal dysbiosis and with weak immunity suffer too often from fungal infections. Mushrooms can be anything from aspergelius to candida. If, in addition to everything, there is a defeat of the lymphatic system, then bronchitis appears.
They say that there is a triad. First, the lymph nodes of the nose become inflamed, then the lymph nodes of the larynx, to which chronic bronchitis ultimately joins, the fourth stage is the diagnosis of bronchial asthma, and with it the disability.
And it all starts with the usual diathesis. As the skin cannot cope alone, other excretory systems begin to connect. A person has three entry systems - digestive, respiratory and urinary, plus our skin. And five exit systems.
Thus, skin problems treated through the skin makes no sense. Everything related to cosmetology and ointments is not effective. Only antibacterial programs and internal body cleansing work.
Viruses in the body
We have already mentioned that psychology also plays an important role in this matter. Nutrition plays a role, lack of water and an excessive amount of harmful liquid (tea, fruit juice, artificial juices, cocoa), bacteria, parasites, drugs, heredity (a mother can pass on different types of bacteria and viruses to her baby at birth, for example, HPV). All of this is important.
There are 10 types of HPV and 6 carcinogens. Carcinogenic types of the virus contribute to the development of cancer. If a person has many warts and moles on his skin, then this is a sign that the virus has already settled in the body. With a decrease in immunity, such people are at serious risk. They can develop cancer.
However, the skin is quite heavily protected. If the HPV virus appears on the mucous membrane (urethra, larynx, vagina, cervix), then the process is aggravated many times, and a large number of moles leads to the development of polyps over time, which, if omitted, are quite dangerous. They must be removed and antiviral treatment should be carried out.
Moles on the body can not be torn off, cut, massaged and irradiated. They need to be coagulated. It happens that after taking a drug based on sulfur and microhydrin for six months, a global resorption of moles occurs.
Sulfur carries a very powerful antiviral effect, usually take it three times a day, one capsule. In parallel with this, it is necessary to stimulate the immune system using shark liver fat. Experts came to this conclusion by accident, because no one thought that moles could pass.
This was revealed as a result of a completely different experiment. After six months of intake of sulfur due to osteochondrosis and arthritis, people began to note that the number of their moles decreased markedly, they simply disappeared.
How to treat skin
What affects the skin? There are standard schemes.
The first is food. At 80 percent, it should be vegetarian, it should have fiber that maintains a clean bowel. Even with normal diathesis, it is advisable to drink only water, to exclude any other fluids.
Secondly, it is necessary to conduct a survey. Check blood for the presence of candida (ospergilius mushroom), giardia, various types of HPV, opisthorchia and toxocariasis. As a rule, they are examined for the presence of precisely these mushrooms. Mushroom ospergilius is a very serious problem, as the bronchi are affected. Every fifth person on the planet suffers from candidiasis.
Today, there are candidate doctors. However, it is important to note that the human body is almost defenseless against candida, because white blood cells do not have an enzyme that can dissolve candida. Therefore, if our immunity can cope with various viruses, then Candida is too tough for him.
If the child has stomatitis or thrush on the mucous membrane, then the cause is candida fungus. In this case, antibiotics cannot be taken, since bacteria with fungi live in different niches, and fungi love to eat antibiotics. Therefore, when a person takes an antibiotic in such a situation, he does nothing more than propagate the fungus.
The skin is not quickly treated, at least six months should pass, because an integrated approach is needed: water, proper food, psychology and several antiparasitic programs consisting of three parts (against bacteria, parasites and fungi).
After this comes the time of rehabilitation: sulfur, selenium, alfalfa, vitamins E and A, zinc. Sulfur is an integral part of the methionine protein, which keeps the skin supple. Collagens, elements also responsible for skin elasticity, also consist of sulfur, and we get very little from food. This element is found in soybeans and green peas, but so many people don’t eat these products simply because they don’t like them.
Thus, a lack of sulfur leads to sagging skin and accelerated aging.
Now let's talk a little about antibiotics. What is an artificial antibiotic? Scientists have spied on how natural substances act on bacteria. Some of them blocked enzymes, some cleaved the membrane, and some deprived the bacterium of its ability to reproduce.
A man partially reproduced a natural antibiotic, depending on how iodine and garlic act. That is, we know what happens when nature fights. Based on this, scientists have created several types of antibiotics. However, nature is wiser than us, so it is certainly better to use what nature invented, because it will certainly be deadly for bacteria and viruses and safe for humans.
It is important to know that large molecular fats the skin cannot pass through itself. For this reason, the vast majority of creams do not pass through the skin. If this problem could be solved, then there would be no intravenous administration of drugs and swallowing tablets.
We would all smear on the skin. It would not be necessary to kill bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract, we would just take the right antibiotic, spread it in the right place and wait for the result. However, unfortunately, today it is a myth. The skin does not let anything through itself.
You can draw an analogy by lowering a person for some time in the mud or in a jam. But nothing will happen, the person will be separate, the jam separately. If the skin could absorb, then we would absorb everything around us, but the skin has a serious barrier that passes practically nothing, except, unfortunately, toxic substances (acetone and chlorine).
The skin does not know how to deal with chemical toxins, but it does not miss the natural ones. It is wonderful. For example, he swam in the river, grabbed bacteria, sat on the grass, collected everything that was on it, but in the end everything was fine, he was not infected by anything, unless of course the skin was damaged in any way. And if there are small cuts, scratches, erosion on it, then, unfortunately, everything will get inside.
All information is for guidance only. Do not take any serious action without consulting a specialist.
Types of Skin Diseases
There are many reasons leading to unhealthy skin integuments - they can be both external, which implies the traumatic effect of the environment, and internal, when the skin is affected by problems of the immune and endocrine systems, gastrointestinal tract, etc.
Each layer of the skin is susceptible to specific diseases. So, scabies and psoriasis can be attributed to the pathologies of the epidermis, furunculosis and hydradenitis are the pathologies of the dermis, and cellulitis and lipoma are the pathologies of the subcutaneous fat. However, some painful conditions, such as burns, can affect all skin layers at once.
Skin pathologies can be divided into infectious and non-infectious. But this division is not always true: for example, seborrheic dermatitis is caused by a fungus that lives on the surface of the epidermis in healthy people, but does not manifest itself in any way without impaired immunity. In addition, infections often join already at the height of the pathological process: in patients with psoriasis, purulent sores often arise, resulting from bacterial skin lesions.
A predisposition to certain skin ailments can be inherited - many patients note that problems such as youthful acne in children and their parents appear in a similar way.
Of particular importance in dermatology are chronic skin diseases. Unlike acute infectious processes, they accompany a person for long periods of life and require consistent therapy. More often they develop under the influence of various internal factors: from parasitic invasion to stress.
Statistically, the most common group of skin diseases that become a reason for contacting a doctor are dermatoses and dermatitis - non-infectious diseases associated with itching, peeling and discoloration of the skin. Similar diseases are observed in children and in adults suffering from allergies and immunodeficiencies.
Signs of skin diseases: how to distinguish one from the other
Every adult can suspect a skin disease in himself or in a child. Indeed, normally the integument of the body has a uniform color, moderate humidity and a smooth surface. Violation of any of these conditions, as well as the appearance of unpleasant sensations - itching or pain - is cause for alarm. And even before the visit to the doctor I would like to find out how dangerous this condition is for health and whether it is worth observing some special safety measures so as not to aggravate the situation and not infect anyone around.
Diseases from the group of dermatitis and dermatoses, which also include psoriasis, are not contagious, but can significantly worsen a person’s physical and psychological state, therefore, at the first signs of an ailment, a dermatologist should seem.
- Atopic dermatitis is a pathology of an allergic nature, which, as a rule, appears in children in the first year of life. The disease is manifested by itching and various rashes on the face and neck, on the scalp and in the natural skin folds - armpits, in the elbow and knee pits, in the groin, etc. The disease can occur in both mild and severe form, which causes serious suffering to the baby. An integrated approach is important in the treatment of atopic dermatitis: cleansing the body, normalizing digestion, diet therapy, eliminating provoking factors from both the diet and the environment, external therapy to eliminate symptoms on the skin.
- Allergic dermatitis, unlike atopic, often occurs in adults as a reaction to a food (food allergy) or contact (contact allergy) irritant. Food allergy usually manifests itself within 24 hours from the moment that a particular product causing an allergic reaction was eaten. The localization of an allergic rash can be individual, but usually the rash appears in the same places, with the same intensity and area of the rashes. In contact allergies, an inflammatory reaction and changes in the skin are observed only in that part of the body that was in direct contact with the allergen: for example, in case of a reaction to hair dye, redness, itching and swelling occur on the head, and in case of intolerance to certain metals - on the neck, where a person wears a chain, or in the area of the abdomen that is in contact with the belt buckle. The key factor in the treatment of allergic dermatitis is the identification and elimination of the allergen, as well as local therapy - to eliminate itching, inflammatory reaction, to protect against infection and restore damaged skin.
- Seborrheic dermatitis is a consequence of excessive secretion of sebum, which is accompanied by active reproduction in the epidermis of a fungus from the genus Malassezia. The disease develops in areas of the body that are rich in sebaceous glands - this is the scalp, nasolabial triangle, behind the ear, sternum and navel, the back between the shoulder blades, armpits. With seborrheic dermatitis, small whitish scales form on the skin surface, which are easily exfoliated, exposing a slightly inflamed surface. Therapy of seborrheic dermatitis should be aimed primarily at eliminating the cause (scalp fungus), as well as at restoring the damaged skin structure - in order to reduce excessive peeling.
- Eczema is a chronic, relapsing skin disease accompanied by inflammation, rash, and a burning sensation. It occurs on symmetric sections of the trunk and flexion surfaces of the joints. The disease is caused by disorders in the immune system that can be inherited from generation to generation. A distinctive feature of eczema is the inconsistent nature of the rashes: first, inflammation appears on the skin, after which it becomes covered with small vesicles, which, when empty, form a moist wound surface. Over time, erosion on the skin dries and crusts, after which a period of remission begins. The disease can worsen from year to year, and the final cure, even with proper treatment, may never occur.
- Neurodermatitis is a consequence of two pathological processes at once: an allergic reaction and a “breakdown” in the work of the autonomic nervous system. A key symptom of the disease is the pronounced itching of the affected areas of the body, which interferes with the patient's normal life and sleep. There is a limited and diffuse form of neurodermatitis - depending on the number and area of sites involved. The skin becomes dry, inflamed and rough, and even after successful treatment pigmented spots can be seen in the affected area.
It is no coincidence that psoriasis is allocated into a separate group - this is one of the most severe chronic skin diseases, which is characterized by an unpredictable course and a foggy mechanism of occurrence. This disease occurs in people, regardless of their age, gender, social status and lifestyle, although it is noted that more often it occurs against a background of severe stress. Psoriatic plaques appear on the elbow and knee bends, scalp, soles and palms, and the outer surfaces of the joints. Marks have a size from a few millimeters to several centimeters and often merge into single spots. Plaques in psoriasis have a scaly structure, when the scales are separated, the skin under them glistens and can bleed. The disease can affect not only the skin, but also the nails and joints, causing psoriatic arthritis.
Active zinc (zinc pyrithione): interesting studies
According to recent scientific studies, some of the most effective non-hormonal topical agents are preparations based on active zinc (or zinc pyrithione) - such as Tsinokap of the Russian company Otisifarm. Zinc is an organic and natural medicine for the skin - because its concentration in healthy human skin is about 20% of the total content in the body, and a deficiency of this valuable metal is accompanied by various skin lesions and worsening of wound healing. Medicines with active zinc (zinc pyrithione) have a whole range of specific properties (anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal), help reduce skin itching, promote the production of ceramides (lipids) of the skin, which leads to the restoration of its barrier function. Studies have proven that active zinc has efficacy comparable to hormonal agents and a good safety profile. It is practically not absorbed from the surface of the skin and therefore has no irritating and damaging effects. In addition to zinc pyrithione, Tsinokap also contains d-panthenol, which prevents skin from losing water, helps restore the intercellular structures of the skin and quickly heals.
The drug “Tsinokap” is presented in pharmacies in the form of a cream and aerosol, which is conveniently applied to hard-to-reach areas of the body (such as the scalp).