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How does climate affect people? Abrupt climate change, consequences

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A group of scientists from the United States said that one of the reasons for the development of insomnia in people may be ongoing processes of development of global warming on Earth.

In the course of the research, experts found that a person throughout his life gets used to the range of certain room temperatures. When external changes occur, the body begins to pick them up.

Anxiety at the cellular level is transmitted to the person in the brain, and he begins to experience problems with healthy sleep or its duration, as well as negative moments in mental activity, the person is prone to frequent irritability.

According to estimates, the temperature on our planet will continue to increase and by the middle of the 21st century it will rise one more degree Celsius. This, according to scientists, can lead to a reduction in the duration of sleep in humans by about 2 hours.

When climate impact is noticeable

The most obvious effect occurs in the following cases:

  • A sharp change in the weather. A sudden strong wind, thunderstorm, or cooling causes a change in health status. In people stronger, the state of health is practically not felt worse, but in cores, hypertensive patients, diabetics severe headaches begin, pressure rises up to a hypertensive crisis, there may be a heart attack.
  • Moving over long distances. Climate and people are closely interconnected. For example, when the inhabitants of the north come to rest on the sea, for some time they feel not too well due to the sea air, the hot sun and other factors. Doctors do not recommend traveling long distances to people with chronic diseases.

Many believe that if you live in one place for a long time, then over time the body adapts, and all influence ceases, but in fact it is not. Climatic conditions affect a person constantly. For some this is a beneficial effect, for others it is detrimental. It all depends on the individual characteristics of each.

What is climate

This is not only a combination of hot and cold days in a year, not only the average daily temperature or the amount of rainfall. These are meteorological phenomena, as well as terrestrial and solar radiation, a magnetic field, landscape, electricity from the atmosphere. The impact of climate on humans is due to a combination of these factors.

Scientific approach

Even in ancient times in India and Tibet, conclusions were drawn about how different weather conditions, such as the sun, rain, thunderstorms, affect well-being. In these countries, to this day they are studying how the climate affects people. For treatment, techniques that are closely related to the seasons or the weather are preserved. Already in the 460s, Hippocrates wrote in his treatises that weather and health have a direct relationship with each other.

The development and progression of some diseases is not uniform throughout the year. All doctors know that in winter and autumn, an exacerbation of gastrointestinal diseases occurs. A more scientific approach to this issue was implemented in the 19th century, when prominent scientists of the time - Pavlov, Sechenov and others - studied how climate affects people in the Petersburg Academy of Sciences. They conducted medical experiments, analyzed the available information and came to the conclusion that some epidemics appear and are especially difficult to proceed precisely depending on climatic conditions. Thus, an outbreak of West Nile fever was twice recorded in Russia during an abnormally warm winter. Already in our time, these observations have been repeatedly confirmed.

Types of Interaction

There are two types of climate effects on the body: direct and indirect. The first is directly related to climatic conditions, and its results are easily distinguishable. This can be observed on the processes of heat transfer of a person and the environment, as well as on the skin, sweating, blood circulation and metabolism.

The indirect effect of climate on humans is longer. These are changes in his body that occur after a certain period of stay in a particular natural zone. One example of this effect is climate adaptation. Many climbers experience painful sensations and breathing problems when climbing high altitudes. However, they pass with frequent climbs or with a certain adaptation program.

The effect of high temperatures on the human body

A hot climate, especially tropical with high humidity is a very aggressive environment in terms of the impact on the human body. This is primarily due to increased heat transfer. At high temperature, it rises 5-6 times. This leads to the fact that the receptors transmit signals to the brain, and the blood begins to circulate much faster, during which time the expansion of blood vessels occurs. If such measures are not enough to maintain heat balance, then profuse sweating begins. Most often, people affected by heart disease suffer from heat. Doctors confirm that a hot summer is the time when most heart attacks occur, and an exacerbation of chronic cardiovascular diseases is also observed.

You should also know how the climate affects people living in the tropics. They have a thin physique, more sinewy structure. In the inhabitants of Africa, one can observe elongated limbs. Among residents of hot countries, people with large body fat are less common. In general, the population of these countries is “smaller” than that which lives in natural areas where the climate is temperate.

The effect on the well-being of lower temperatures

For those who fall into the northern regions or constantly live there, a decrease in heat transfer is observed. This is achieved by slowing blood circulation and narrowing of blood vessels. The normal reaction of the body is to achieve a balance between heat transfer and heat generation, and if this does not happen, then the temperature of the body gradually decreases, the functions of the body are inhibited, mental disorder occurs, the result of this is cardiac arrest. An important role in the normal functioning of the body where the climate is cold, plays a lipid metabolism. Northerners have a much faster and easier metabolism, so you need to constantly replenish energy losses. For this reason, their main diet is fats and proteins.

The inhabitants of the north have a larger physique and a significant layer of subcutaneous fat, which prevents heat loss. But not all people are able to adapt to the cold normally if a sharp change in climate occurs. Typically, the work of the defense mechanism in such people leads to the fact that they develop a "polar disease". To avoid the difficulties of adapting to the cold, you need to take large amounts of vitamin C.

Climate Change

Weather and health have a direct and very close relationship with each other. In regions characterized by a gradual change in weather conditions, people are less likely to experience these transitions. It is believed that the middle lane has the most favorable climate for health. Because where the change of seasons occurs very sharply, most people suffer from rheumatic reactions, pain in places of old injuries, headaches associated with pressure drops.

However, there is a flip side to the coin. A temperate climate does not contribute to the development of rapid adaptation to the new environment. Few people from the middle zone are able to get used to the sharp changes in ambient temperature without any problems, immediately adapt to the hot air and bright sun of the south. They often suffer from headaches, burn faster in the sun and get used to new conditions longer.

Interesting Facts

The fact that climate and people are inextricably linked is confirmed by the following facts:

  • Residents of the south are more likely to endure cold where locals can walk without putting on a lot of clothing.
  • When the inhabitants of arid areas fall into a tropical area, where the water literally stands in the air, they begin to hurt.
  • The heat and high humidity make people from the middle zone and northern regions lethargic, painful and lethargic, it becomes difficult to breathe, and sweating increases significantly.

Temperature fluctuations

Temperature changes are a serious test for health. Particularly painful is the change of climate for the child. What happens in the body during sharp fluctuations in temperature?

A very cold climate provokes excessive arousal, while heat, on the contrary, plunges a person into a state of apathy. The change of these two states depends on how fast the temperature changes. With a sharp cooling or warming, chronic problems are exacerbated, cardiovascular diseases develop. Only with a smooth transition from low to high temperatures and vice versa does the body manage to adapt.

Height is also unsafe

Humidity and pressure changes are also important. This primarily affects thermoregulation. Cold air cools the body, while hot air, on the contrary, is what skin receptors react to accordingly. Very well, this effect is noticeable when climbing into the mountains, where climatic conditions, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and air temperature change with every ten meters.

Already at an altitude of 300 meters, hyperventilation of the lungs begins due to the fact that the wind and low oxygen content in the air interfere with normal breathing. Blood circulation is accelerated, because the body is trying to disperse an insufficient amount of oxygen in all cells. With increasing height, these processes are further enhanced, a large number of red blood cells and hemoglobin appear in the blood.

At high altitudes, where there is a low oxygen content and stronger solar radiation, a person's metabolism is significantly enhanced. This can slow down the development of metabolic diseases. However, a sharp change in height can have a detrimental effect. That is why many people are advised to rest and treatment in sanatoriums at moderate heights, where there is higher pressure and cleaner air, but at the same time there is enough oxygen in it. In the last century, many tuberculosis patients were sent to such sanatoriums or places with a dry climate.

Protective gear

With frequent changes in natural conditions, the human body builds up something like a barrier over time, so no significant changes are observed. Adaptation is quick and relatively painless, regardless of the direction of travel and how sharply the temperature changes with climate change.

Climbers experience great congestion on the peaks, which can become fatal. Therefore, they take special oxygen cylinders with them, while local residents, who have been living high above sea level since birth, have no such problems.

The mechanism of climate protection is currently unclear to scientists.

Seasonal fluctuations

The effect of seasonal changes is also important. Healthy people practically do not react to them, the body itself adapts to a specific time of the year and continues to work optimally for it. But people who have chronic ailments or injuries can react painfully to the transition from one season to another. At the same time, everyone has a change in the speed of mental reactions, the work of the endocrine glands, as well as the rate of heat transfer. These changes are quite normal and are not deviations, so people do not notice them.

Meteorological dependence

Some people are particularly sensitive to changes in temperature and climate, this phenomenon is called meteopathy, or meteorological dependence. There can be many reasons for this: individual characteristics of the body, weakened immunity due to the disease. At the same time, they may experience symptoms such as increased drowsiness and weakness, sore throat, runny nose, dizziness, inability to concentrate, shortness of breath and nausea.

In order to overcome these problems, it is necessary to analyze your condition and identify what specific changes cause these symptoms. After that, you can try to cope with them. First of all, a healthy lifestyle contributes to the normalization of the general condition. It includes: prolonged sleep, proper nutrition, walks in the fresh air, moderate physical activity.

To combat the heat and dryness of the air, you can use fresheners and conditioners, it helps to drink plenty. Be sure to eat fresh fruits and meat.

Climatic changes during pregnancy

Often meteorological dependence can occur in pregnant women, who until then quite calmly experienced the change of seasons or weather.

Pregnant women are not recommended to make long trips or long trips. In an “interesting” position, the body is already under stress from hormonal changes, in addition, most of the useful substances are given to the fetus, and not to the female body. For these reasons, the additional burden of adapting to a new climate while traveling is completely useless.

The impact of climate on the children's body

Children are also keenly responsive to climate change. But here everything happens a little differently than in adults. A child’s body, in principle, adapts to any conditions much faster, so a healthy child does not experience big problems when changing the season or climate.

The main problem with climate change lies not in the process of adaptation, but in the reaction of the child himself. Any climate change causes certain processes in the human body. And if adults are able to adequately respond to them, for example, hide in the shade in the heat or put on hats, then the children’s sense of self-preservation is not so developed. Body signals in adults will lead to the adoption of certain measures, the child will ignore them. For this reason, during a climate change, adults should carefully monitor the condition of the baby.

Because children are more sensitive to different climatic changes, there is a whole section in medicine - climatotherapy. Doctors who practice this treatment, without the help of drugs, can achieve significant improvements in the health of the child.

The most beneficial effect on the children's body has a marine or mountain climate. Sea salt water, sunbathing have a beneficial effect on his mental state, and also enhance overall health and contribute to the production of vitamin D.

In order to achieve a certain effect, the child needs to spend at least four weeks at the resort, this period is considered optimal. In severe forms of chronic diseases or pathologies, the sanatorium period can take several months. Most often, treatment in sea and mountainous areas is used for children with rickets, respiratory and skin diseases, and mental disorders.

Climate Impact on Older Persons

Elderly people are a category that needs to be especially attentive to climate change or travel. This is primarily due to the fact that elderly people often suffer from diseases of the cardiovascular system, as well as the musculoskeletal system. A sharp change in climate can adversely affect their well-being and the course of these diseases. In the summer, seizures most often occur, namely the mortality of the elderly.

The second factor is the speed of adaptation, as well as habits. If a young and healthy person needs five to seven days to adapt to a new climate, then in older people these periods are significantly increased, and the body is not always able to adequately respond to changes in temperature, humidity or pressure. This is the risk of travel of the elderly.

A sharp change in the climate zone will certainly entail a change in time zone and the duration of the day and night. These changes are difficult to tolerate even by healthy people, not to mention the elderly. Insomnia is one of the most innocent problems of older people.

Health effects of different climatic zones

The marine climate has a beneficial effect on people with disorders of the nervous system. Cool air does not cause irritation, there is rarely a sharp change in temperature near the sea, it is warmer there in winter and cooler in summer. Кроме того, море рассеивает солнечную радиацию, а возможность насладиться большим открытым пространством положительно влияет на глаза и успокаивает нервы.

Горный климат, наоборот, служит для возбуждения нервной деятельности и повышения работоспособности. This is due to high pressure, frequent temperature changes, when during the day you can sunbathe and at night you have to escape from frostbite. A quick change of day and night plays its role, because in the mountains this process is almost imperceptible. Very often, people engaged in creative activities go to the mountains to draw inspiration.

The northern climate, where it is constantly cold and there is no particular variety of landscapes, tempers not only character, but also human health. Scientists have proved that people who are constantly in places with a cold climate are more resistant to various diseases, including chronic ones. Inhabitants of the north practically do not suffer from diabetes and age more slowly.

Symptoms of acclimatization - how to adapt to change?

Very often a fever, sore throat after moving to a new place is perceived as a cold. Head begins to feel dizzy, headaches, sleep poorly, causeless weakness and apathy appear. And someone may not be lucky at all: she began to feel sick up to vomiting, there were abdominal pains, upset stomach.

And you longingly think about what was eaten on the road while getting to the blessed resting place. However, I can please you (or upset - this is which side to look at) - all this refers to the symptoms of acclimatization

Mountain acclimatization also has its own characteristics: when you are high above sea level, much less concern is caused by much less oxygen. Altitude sickness can even develop when a person weakens both physically and mentally. For an unadapted organism, acute mountain sickness, dizziness, weakness, fatigue, headaches, nausea, up to cerebral edema, and lungs are possible.

Such symptoms usually appear 2-3 days after you are placed in a new place. At best, they will end in 2 days, at worst they will last a week. Worst of all, the process of acclimatization occurs in the elderly and in children. Many doctors argue that if the child is not yet 3 years old, you should not take him to those countries where the climate is different from his usual.

Of course, it is up to parents to decide when and where to go with their children. I know many families who often travel with very young children, you just need to know how to adapt the body to climate change.

Very first recommendation to acclimatization for children It was easy - it doesn’t go to hot countries where the temperature reached 40-50 degrees. Such a hot trip will not bring you pleasure, and even more so for the child. You should also not go to countries with a hot and humid climate if your child has any problems with the respiratory system.

Get ready for a vacation in a week. No matter how you want to do everything at the last minute, start to relax and relax in advance, less physical exertion, go out to the sun now, let the skin get used to the sun.

It will also be great to prepare the immune system for a climate change if you start taking a good vitamin C complex in advance.

Do not try to sleep off on vacation "in reserve" - ​​there is no benefit from this, it is best to just follow the usual regime of the day: get up and go to bed at the same time. It will be especially difficult to acclimatize in countries where the time zone is different, so try to shift your sleep time every half hour before your vacation.

Best of all, if your arrival at the place of rest will be in the evening, you will have a night to acclimatize, and perhaps its symptoms will not appear or will appear to a minimum. It will be difficult if you arrived in the morning, immediately ran to the beach, sightseeing and so on. Especially if it was an air flight. 2-4-6 hours ago, you were in some climatic conditions, but here you were in completely different conditions. The body is in shock ...

As for the diet during rest, it is important for your acclimatization to eat food at the same time. Do not get involved in exotic foods and dishes, at least for the first time.

Eat a lot of vegetables, salads, fruits, do not drink tap water, otherwise an upset bowel and abdominal pain can no longer be attributed to the symptoms of acclimatization ...

This is all, of course, wonderful, but who adheres to all these recommendations when here ... rest ?! Well, if you did not prepare for acclimatization in any way or thought that it would not affect you, and you made a mistake, here are some specific tips on how to get rid of acclimatization symptoms.

Hello, acclimatization and goodbye?

  • You have an intestinal upset: in the first few days, eat less food, let the body spend energy on adaptation, and not on the digestion of exotic foods. Do not want intestinal problems, do not buy food on the street - in hot countries there are microbes that our body is not familiar with. Why do you think Thailand is so spicy and spicy. This is all protection against germs - otherwise it is impossible in such a climate.
  • You have constipation - the so-called constipation of the traveler. The movement will help, especially swimming, because you came here for this?

  • The so-called cold acclimatization happened to you: chills, throat perspiration, runny nose. Unfortunately, in this case, you only need to wait until the body itself adapts to climate change. 80% of people on the globe suffer from symptoms of acclimatization, and there is nothing to help. The only thing that can alleviate the condition is vitamin C, we have already talked about it above.
  • Insomnia has happened to you. Turn on the air conditioner, throw off the blanket and lie down like this for about 5 minutes. When we fall asleep, our body temperature decreases, blood circulation also slows down. The decrease in temperature and the slowdown of blood circulation created in such an artificial way will be perceived by the body as falling asleep. The main thing is to catch a blanket in time, so as not to freeze under the air conditioning.

First-aid kit

You must take a lot of water, juice, tea with you. If you have an allergy to an insect bite, some food did not fit and caused a skin rash or an overseas flower made you sneeze, antihistamines will come in handy. In the medicine cabinet, it is also worth putting pills for a headache, nitroglycerin, validol. In addition to sunblock with an SPF filter, take cream from cuts, bruises, abrasions, burns.

A month before the trip, you can take special adaptogens, preparations containing ginseng, eleutherococcus, lemongrass. And do sports, so you enhance the effect.

They coped with acclimatization, had a wonderful rest, returned home and ... hello, reacclimatization! Again, a change in climate and regime. Headaches, cold symptoms, irritability and fatigue, insomnia or excessive drowsiness may appear again.

If, after a vacation, without having been at home for a day, you immediately go to work, this can contribute to the development of depression! Therefore, your task is to organize your vacation in such a way that you have at least 2 days left to “rest” from the rest, get ready for work, take 1-2 g of vitamin C again for a few days and gradually get into a rut.

If you follow all these recommendations, you will not be afraid of any symptoms of acclimatization!

I’ll share a very interesting video with you. Look how beautiful our planet Earth is, and then certainly no acclimatization will be scary to you

And how do you escape from the symptoms of acclimatization?

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