Acute cerebral ischemia (stroke) occurs suddenly, causing disorders of speech, movement and other body functions. How reversible the violations that arise will depend on the timely assistance provided and on the administration of the prescribed drugs. Consider which cure for stroke will help restore impaired function and reduce the risk of relapse.
What drugs help recovery
After an ischemic attack, to reduce brain damage, the patient is prescribed medications to improve cerebral circulation and drugs that stimulate the restoration of nerve conduction. Medicines are selected taking into account the severity of brain damage and the localization of the pathological focus after acute cerebrovascular accident.
Consider the main drugs after a stroke and their effect on the human body:
- Preparations based on Citicoline (Ceraxon). When taking the medicine, there is an improvement in metabolism in the nervous tissue and a decrease in swelling. Medications help restore neural chains responsible for memory, attention, thinking and other cognitive processes.
Gliatilin. Reduces degenerative phenomena, improves cerebral blood flow and stimulates metabolic processes in nerve cells.
Actovegin. With a stroke, it protects and stimulates the restoration of brain tissue. The drug is used to treat and in order to prevent a stroke in people suffering from transient ischemic attacks.
Mexidol. The medicine is prescribed in tablets or injections. Mexidol in stroke reduces tissue oxygen demand and prevents brain cell death.
Glycine and Cerebrolysin. Drugs restore cerebral blood flow and do not cause adverse reactions. They can be given to the victim if it is not possible to urgently (in the first three hours) deliver the person to the hospital.
Nootropic drugs. This group of drugs improves brain metabolism. Nootropics after a brain stroke (Encephabol, Nootropil) stimulate partial tissue regeneration, improve amino acid metabolism and prevent hypoxia.
Piracetam or Aminalon. In patients with VSD, medications that combine the effects of nootropics and vasoactive drugs are recommended. Piracetam after a stroke contributes to mild psychostimulation of the brain, improving thinking and memory.
Hemostatic (Aspirin, Warfarin). Blood thinner therapy is needed to alleviate cerebral blood flow and reduce the risk of intravascular blood clots. Blood thinners reduce the risk of relapse.
Preparations for the treatment of cerebral stroke are selected individually, taking into account the processes occurring in the tissues of the brain.
How effective anti-stroke drugs will be depends not only on the selected drugs, but also on the general condition of the patient. In elderly people or in people with severe chronic diseases, the effect of the use of medications will be weaker than in a relatively healthy person.
But painkillers with antispasmodic effect in acute stroke are prohibited. Taking antispasmodics provokes a decrease in vascular tone and a worsening of already impaired blood circulation in the brain. If there is a need to eliminate vascular spasms, then antispasmodics for the treatment of ischemic stroke are used under medical supervision.
What droppers are given for a stroke
Restorative therapy in the early post-stroke period is aimed at improving cerebral circulation and restoration of neural connections. Droppers after a stroke consist of a basic solution: 0.9% sodium chloride, to which are added:
- Magnesium sulfate.
Other drugs for the treatment of stroke can be administered dropwise. A simultaneous infusion of 2-3 compatible drugs is possible.
Intravenous drip infusion allows you to enter medications slowly, maintaining a certain level of active substances in the blood for a long time. This provides a higher effect compared to that given by intravenous and intramuscular injections.
What to stab with a stroke is decided by the doctor. Preparations for the restoration of arising disorders are selected individually, taking into account the mechanism of brain damage (ischemia or hemorrhage), concomitant diseases, age and nature of the speech and motor disorders that have appeared.
Vitamins after a stroke
Vitamins are needed to strengthen the body weakened by the disease.
The list of vitamins necessary for the insulator:
- BUT. Stimulates the growth and regeneration of damaged tissues.
- B1 and B6. Contribute to the stabilization of blood pressure, improve cerebral blood flow, improve the conductivity of neurons.
- FROM. Strengthens the vascular wall and accelerates the restoration of damaged vessels.
- AT. It affects the blood circulation and the work of the peripheral nervous system. It is necessary to normalize the composition of the blood and restore neural connections.
- E. prevents the appearance of free radicals that disrupt metabolism and cause cellular aging.
In addition to vitamins, minerals are prescribed to strengthen the defenses: potassium, magnesium and others. Vitamin and mineral complexes are recommended for patients. The list of drugs for recovery is large and often the medicines produced by different pharmacological companies, despite the same composition, have different names. Before taking the purchased medication, you need to consult a doctor - the wrong ratio of vitamins and minerals is unsafe for a stroke patient.
Types of therapy
Drug treatment for stroke can be divided into groups:
- blood thinning
Drugs with a brain stroke are selected taking into account the symptoms. In addition to the symptoms that have arisen, the doctor, choosing treatment, takes into account the mechanism of development of stroke: ischemia or hemorrhage.
With ischemic stroke
With this form, the cessation of blood flow to the area of the brain occurs due to blockage of the artery with a thrombus or atherosclerotic plaque.
Treatment of cerebral ischemia is aimed at restoring blood flow in the area of brain tissue. Let's see which drugs are prescribed:
- Nootropic drugs. Neuroprotectors will reduce hypoxia, reduce the area of the affected area and prevent further damage to neurons.
- Hemorrhaging. Medications after stroke, reducing blood viscosity, are necessary to improve cerebral blood flow, prevent the re-emergence of blood clots.
- Soothing. Hypnotic and sedative drugs for cerebral stroke, accompanied by an ischemic process, are necessary in the acute stage of the disease. Providing rest reduces the area of damage to brain cells and prevents early post-stroke complications.
- Antihypertensive. Pressure-reducing medications are needed to prevent unwanted vascular stress.
- Diuretics Necessary to prevent cerebral edema in the acute stage of the disease.
The list of medicines can be supplemented with statins and vitamin-mineral complexes. What medications to take and in what dose are selected individually.
In the acute stage, these are droppers or injections to recover from a stroke, and in a later period, when rehabilitation of post-stroke complications is carried out, medications are prescribed in tablets. Preparations for ischemic stroke are selected individually, taking into account the deviations and the stage of the disease.
Often, relatives may be asked to prescribe the most effective pills for the brain after a stroke or prescribe injections to speed up rehabilitation. But there is no “super-remedy” and the treatment after stroke is long, despite the fact that the doctor decides what drugs to treat taking into account the pathology mechanism and the nature of the deviations that have arisen.
With hemorrhagic stroke
Rupture of the vessel, accompanied by the formation of intracranial hematoma or blood impregnation of brain tissue.
Treatment of hemorrhagic stroke with blood-soaked brain tissue is slightly different from ischemic brain damage. Medications are prescribed for recovery after stroke with anti-edema, antihypertensive, neuroprotective and sedative effects.
The only difference is that drugs for hemorrhagic stroke should not only prevent the development of oxygen starvation in the brain cells, but also prevent further hemorrhage. The list of stroke medications is replenished:
With the formation of a large hematoma, in order to prevent compression of the brain structure, patients undergo surgical removal of blood accumulations. After eliminating the blood clot, standard drugs are used to treat stroke.
A healthy lifestyle and the exclusion from the menu of harmful products (fatty, smoked, pickled) helps to reduce the risk of acute ischemia.
Drug prophylaxis is indicated only for individuals who have undergone stroke. This is necessary due to the fact that stroke patients have an increased risk of developing a second attack. Some medications are prescribed in short courses, while others need to be drunk for life. Consider what medications you need to take after a stroke all the time:
- blood-thinning (under the control of PTV),
- statins (if high cholesterol).
Prevention by other means is carried out by supporting courses twice a year. The patient is given droppers, injections and some medications are prescribed in tablets.
List of injections for the prevention of stroke:
Medications are administered by drip or intramuscular injection. Piracetam, for the prevention of possible complications after a stroke, is prescribed in long courses. Some neurologists call this drug: “memory pills” because drug psychostimulation increases brain activity. In addition to medications that affect the functioning of the brain, therapy includes vitamins and other medications to strengthen the body. What to drink after stroke in the rehabilitation period is prescribed by a neurologist.
Stroke prevention drugs help maintain metabolic processes in the brain tissue, improve metabolism and prevent the formation of blood clots or atherosclerotic plaques in the early and late post-stroke period.
Medications after stroke help reduce brain tissue damage and prevent serious complications. What to take - the doctor decides, taking into account the post-stroke period and the nature of the disorders detected in the patient, therefore, drugs for prevention are selected individually for each patient. But it is impossible to prevent stroke, but the risk of an attack will help to reduce bad habits and a healthy lifestyle.
Therapy after a brain stroke
Particularly important points in the treatment of ischemic stroke are timeliness, continuity and the right therapeutic tactics.
This is due to the fact that in the acute period of an attack, the mortality of patients is high, it makes up 20% of all cases, 10% of patients die in a year after a stroke, the remaining patients suffer from the inability to lead their usual daily lives, as there are limitations of the physical plane.
In the post-stroke period, a special role is given to measures for the restoration and rehabilitation of the patient.
The lost function of neurons is restored in a hospital setting or during spa treatment. A special role in this matter is given to physiotherapy.
Here is the standard treatment for the disease:
- Exercise therapy
- mud treatment
- hardware physiotherapy
It is especially important to properly carry out emergency care at the first moments of an ischemic stroke. Its signs may be:
- Headache, nausea, possibly the onset of vomiting,
- A person feels dizzy and for a short time may lose consciousness,
- Violation of speech, vision, convulsive state.
Attention! Do not panic, you must immediately call an ambulance.
First aid before the arrival of doctors should be based on such actions:
- Ensuring the flow of air, you need to open the windows, to clear the airways of the vomit, if any. This is done by turning the patient’s head on its side and using a clean handkerchief to clean the contents of the mouth. Remove from the neck compressive objects, such as a tie, unfasten the upper buttons of clothing,
- The human head should be in an elevated position relative to his body, this is done so that brain edema does not occur,
- If convulsive syndrome has begun, then you should fix the tongue and remove objects that the patient may hit,
- If cardiac arrest occurs, an indirect massage of the heart muscle and artificial respiration are performed.
Within 3-6 hours after the stroke, a necrotic focus is formed. This time period in medicine is called the “therapeutic window”.
If normal blood circulation is restored, then the focus of necrosis can be neutralized. Therefore, urgent hospitalization of a person with a stroke and placing him in an intensive care unit is extremely important.
Basically, stroke is treated with medication. General therapy of acute cerebrovascular disorders contains many recovery measures, the main ones are:
- Restoring the activity of the heart, blood vessels and respiratory tract,
- Decreased cerebral edema
- The water-electrolyte index is brought back to normal,
- Maintaining body temperature and dysphagia,
- Preventive actions to prevent complications, such as pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, urinary tract infection,
- Prevention of the formation of pressure sores.
First of all, drugs against thrombosis are prescribed so that there is no blockage of blood vessels.
In second place are drugs that contribute to better blood circulation, these include:
- means for resorption of blood clots.
All these medicines are taken in aggregate, since ischemic stroke is treated only comprehensively, as many body systems are affected. In general, intensive drug therapy is carried out in a hospital.
It is worth considering the features of therapy with basic drugs to restore a person’s normal state in the post-stroke period.
Important! Do not try to treat a stroke with folk remedies! Tinctures and decoctions of herbs can only be useful as an additional tool to the main drug therapy.
If you do not take these medicines, then active thrombosis is possible. Anticoagulant medicines include:
It is worth remembering that there are a number of contraindications to their reception:
- extensive stroke,
- high blood pressure
- digestive problems
- diseases of internal organs, especially the liver and kidneys.
This is the most effective therapy to date. But it is worth remembering that thrombolytic treatment will give good results if it was started in the first hours after a stroke.
Such drugs have the following positive effects on the body:
- Destroy the formed blood clots,
- Repair damaged blood vessels
- Contribute to the normalization of blood circulation.
Neuroprotectors protect neural formations from destruction. These drugs must be taken in time during the therapeutic window, then they will be the most effective and will give a positive result in treatment.
These drugs include:
- calcium channel blockers,
Neuroprotectors are prescribed for partially lost motor abilities. Be sure to supplement the therapy with these drugs with physical exercises.
To activate the metabolic processes of neural connections, it is also necessary to take stimulant drugs:
- vasoactive drugs, e.g. Pentoxifylline,
- amino acid products
If surgery for ischemic stroke is indicated, then a carotid endarterectomy is predominantly done. An indication for it may be a narrowing of the gaps of the carotid arteries.
- extensive stroke
- a tumor that has spread to large areas,
- инфаркт, случившийся в последние полгода,
- heart failure,
- the presence of diseases that provoke progressive brain disorders, for example, Alzheimer's disease.
Another surgical action for ischemic stroke can be stenting of the cervical and head vessels. This is done with transient ischemic attacks to prevent repeated strokes.
Selective Thrombolysis - at the same time, a special tube is introduced into one of the large arteries of the body, most often the femoral one, which transfers the substance penetrated through the arteries to the place of direct blockage in the brain. A substance called thrombolytic, which dissolves the formed blood clot, which was the cause of the onset of ischemic stroke. The medicine acts locally and in large doses. Arterial lumen is freed and stroke regression sets in.
Reference: If an extensive ischemic stroke has occurred, then decompressive craniotomy may be indicated. This removes a large area of the bones of the cranial vault in order to reduce compression of the brain, due to the edema formed in it. An operation is performed only if conservative decongestion therapy has not yielded results.
Proper surgical intervention is more likely to avoid the serious consequences of a stroke.
Exercises are divided into passive and active. At the beginning after a stroke, a person cannot make movements on his own. Therefore, passive gymnastics is used with the help of outsiders.
First, the flexion and extensor function of the fingers, lower and upper limbs is restored. After that, a person can gradually sit down and get up. When these skills are mastered, you can proceed to walks.
LFK is based on classes on simulators:
- Exercise bike, which can be fixed directly above the patient’s bed, which allows you to carry out physical exercises while lying down,
- The verticalizer, in the supine position, the simulator is able to raise the human body in an upright position,
- The exercise bike is normal,
- Robotic walking device.
Massage necessarily accompanies physiotherapy exercises. They conduct it first with stroking movements, covering almost the entire human body. In particular, massage actions are carried out in the lower extremities.
As the patient's body recovers, more intense and gross massage actions can be applied.
Hardware physiotherapy involves the following procedures:
- laser therapy
- ultrasound treatment
- heat therapy.
Hirudotherapy is indicated to prevent a second attack. For this, special medical leeches are used, which are kept in separate conditions and do not receive food for six months. Their saliva contains many useful substances.
It has a reflex effect on the brain centers, which reduces blood pressure, dissolves the substance fibin, which forms blood clots, relieves inflammation, strengthens and restores blood vessels.
It is better not to treat acute ischemic stroke with hirudotherapy or to do it under strict medical supervision. But in the subsequent recovery period, treatment with leeches will be very useful.
How to treat at home
After discharge, the sick person must continue treatment at home. This is, first of all, the implementation of all recommendations on physiotherapy exercises. A massage specialist will come to the patient or household members can do it.
A person should continue taking medications, since most often a long course of administration is provided. In the period of home recovery, a favorable family environment and the willingness of relatives to help their sick relative are very important. The diet will also be special. Fatty, salty, spicy, fried foods are excluded. Plant foods, cereals and dairy products are introduced into the diet.
Important! The prognosis for recovery after a brain stroke depends on many factors: from timely treatment to risk factors - smoking, hypertension, etc.
The treatment of a post-stroke patient is based on many indicators, for example, the area of the lesion, the degree of circulatory disturbance, how badly damaged vital organs, etc. It is especially important to prevent the formation of blood clots after a stroke. For these reasons, patient therapy should be carried out in a hospital and under strict medical supervision. Extract is carried out only after its condition is stabilized.
Treatment stroke should start as early as possible, using all possible methods and means. The fact is that immediately after the development of a stroke, only a certain part of nerve cells die. Over the next hours, against the background of developing complications and disorders of cerebral circulation, additional neurons die, which worsens the patient's condition and reduces his chances of recovery.
The principles of stroke treatment
When treating a stroke, certain rules should be adhered to that will stabilize the patient at the beginning of the disease, reduce the severity of brain damage and create conditions for the restoration of impaired functions in the future.
Stroke treatment should include:
- First aid. It is provided by people who are close to the victim at the time of the development of a stroke or emergency doctors who are the first to contact the patient.
- Correction of disorders of the cardiovascular system. In the acute period of a stroke, the patient may experience an increase or a critical decrease in blood pressure, a malfunction of the heart until it stops. All these phenomena should be detected and eliminated in a timely manner with the help of drugs.
- Correction of respiratory system disorders. It is important to ensure that the patient who has had a stroke can breathe adequately. If consciousness is so impaired that the patient does not have independent breathing, it should be connected to the ventilator and disconnected from it only when adequate independent breathing is restored.
- Correction of blood coagulation disorders. It is carried out with the help of drugs that "thin" the blood (it is necessary for ischemic stroke) or “thicken” it (what is needed for hemorrhagic stroke).
- Body temperature control. With an excessive increase in temperature, the introduction of antipyretic drugs, as well as physical cooling of the body (wet compresses, applying ice bags to large blood vessels, and so on).
- The fight against cerebral edema. Diuretics are used that remove fluid from the brain and from the body as a whole.